Ibn Rushd Fi Kitab Fasl Al-Maqal Wa-Taqrir Ma Bayna Al-Shari Ah Wa-Al-Hikmah Min Al-Ittisal, Ahamm Al-Mawdu at Fi Al-Falsafah Wa-Al-Fiqh Wa-Al-Manhaj. the content of Fasl al-Maqal, and then examine what Ibn Rushd in fact does in Kitab Fasl al-Maqal wa Taqrlr ma bayn al-Shart’ah wa al-Hikmah min at-Ittisal. Kitab fasl al-maqal, with its appendix (Damima) and translation is based on the Arabic text in Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Kitab fasl al-maqal, ed.

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The purpose of this treatise 2 is to examine, from the standpoint of the study of the Law, 3 whether the study of philosophy and logic 4 is allowed by the Law, 5 or prohibited, or commanded, either by way of recommendation or as obligatory.

On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy – Wikipedia

That suspicion is idle; therefore in such a case that suspicion ought to be discredited and it [the text] should not be made an object of allegorical interpretation, as has happened in so many contexts as I have shown you in this book at the hands of the theologians, i. This is what happened to the Sufis and to those scholars who followed this path: Just as no change occurs in an agent when his act comes into being, i.

In these cases it is preferable to deny the existence of symbolization. Now the methods available to men of [arriving at] judgments are three: This is the way to resolve this difficulty, as it appears to us; and what has been said is incontestable and indubitable. Then fadl can he do it with the art of arts, philosophy? Now some of the methods of assent comprehend the majority of people, al-maaql.

If it conflicts there is a call for allegorical interpretation of it. Do you want God and His Prophet to be accused of lying? Printed for the Trustees of the “E.

Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: For it can be said to them: For just as the lawyer infers from the Divine command to him to acquire knowledge of the legal categories 29 that he is under obligation to know the various kinds of legal syllogisms, 30 and which are valid and which invalid, 31 in the same way he who would know [God] 32 ought to infer kitaab the command to study beings that he is under obligation to acquire a knowledge of al-maqa reasoning and its kinds.


If unanimous agreement is established by a method which is certain, such [a result] is not sound; but if [the existence of] agreement on those things is a kkitab of opinion, then it may be sound.

The whole of this [argument] is founded on the immortality of the soul. For it is not stated in Scripture that God was existing with absolutely nothing else: They agree also about naming the extremes; but they disagree about the intermediate class.

Ibn Rushd: Fasl al-maqal (Arabic Books: alkutub – مكتبة الكتب العربية)

This is because it is apparent that the materials of the bodies that exist here are successively transferred from one body to another: Therefore allegorical interpretations ought to be set down only in demonstrative books, because if they are in demonstrative books they are encountered by no one but men of the demonstrative class.

So whoever denies such a thing, when it is one of the principles of the Law, is an unbeliever, who persists in defiance with his tongue though not with his heart, or neglects to expose himself to learning the indication of its truth.

It may be objected: I AM grateful to the International Commission for the Translation of Great Works and the Trustees of the Gibb Memorial Fund for sponsoring the publication of this book, and to the Graduate School of the University of Michigan for financial assistance towards research. It is God who helps us to follow the right course and directs us to the truth. The duty of the elite here is to apply such interpretation; while the duty of the masses is to take them in their apparent meaning in both respects, i.

But by expressing those false beliefs to the masses they have been a cause of perdition to the masses and themselves, in this world and the next.


We say that the ideas found in Scripture fall into five classes. Anyone of the interpretative class who discloses such [an interpretation] to him is summoning him to unbelief, and he who summons to unbelief is an unbeliever. That being the case, it is not possible for general unanimity 92 to be established about allegorical interpretations, which God has made peculiar to scholars. It seems that this opinion is more suitable for the elite; for the admissibility of this opinion is founded on facts which are not discussed in front of everyone.


In memory of my father

We intend to make a study of its teachings at the apparent level, and thus help to remedy the grievous harm done by ignorant partisans of philosophy and religion. Don’t have an account?

But when those who came after them used allegorical interpretation, their fear of God grew less, their dissensions increased, their love for one another was removed, and they became divided into sects. He asserted that knowledge and the object known are related; and as one of two related things may change without the alm-aqal changing in itself, this is just al-maqla seems to happen to things in the Knowledge of God the Glorious: Some features of WorldCat will not be available.

Omitted are the Introduction and Notes and now diacritical marks. Diacritical marks are omitted where an Arabic name is incorporated in an English form, e.

The way to resolve this difficulty, in our opinion, is to recognize that the position of the kirab Knowledge with respect to beings is different from the position of originated knowledge with respect to beings, in that the existence of beings is a cause and reason for our knowledge, while the eternal Knowledge is a cause and reason for beings.

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This is the furthest extent to which purification [of concepts] ought to be admitted. These al-maqap methods in religion are of four classes: But this [argument] is not correct. If, when beings come to exist after not having existed, there occurred an addition in the eternal Knowledge such as occurs in originated knowledge, it would follow that the eternal Knowledge would be an effect of beings, not their cause.