This article reconsiders the fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing in light of Carper. The first, empirics, refers to the sci- ence of nursing, and is “empirical. Carper’s ways of knowing in nursing, empirics, esthetics, personal knowing, and ethics, provide a guide to holistic practice, education, and research. The origin. Abstract: ​The goal of this article is to describe Barbara Carper’s nursing . Carper, who proposes four fundamental knowledge patterns that can be .. Source: Jacobs-Kramer M, Chinn P. Perspectives on knowing: A Model of Nursing.

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Carper’s fundamental ways of knowing

Professionals define themselves in terms of what knowledge they possess and seek to acquire. Have you ever considered how nurses add to their knowledge base? Barbara Carper identified four fundamental patterns of knowing that form the conceptual and syntactical structure of nursing knowledge.

These four patterns include: This type of knowledge comes to us through the process of observation, reflection, and self-actualization. When you began to study nursing, what knowledge did you possess?


Consider what you have learned since—in your personal life, in school, and through practice. This knowledge is systematically organized into general laws and theories. One of the ways fundmaental employ this knowledge is through the use of evidenced-based practice EBP. Can you relate how study findings have changed your nursing practice?

For nurses, our personal ethics is based on our obligation to protect and respect human life.

Our deliberate personal actions are guided by ethical knowing. Can you think of an occasion that you needed to make an ethical decision? If you are like many practicing nurses, you make several every single day.

Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. – Abstract – Europe PMC

How did you come to that discovery? The practice of nursing is a holistic, human discipline. The ways of knowing allow us to understand ourselves and nursing practice at a much deeper level; to appreciate nursing as both an art and a science.

Consider how the ways of knowing can assist you in being a better person, a better student, and a better nurse. Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. Knowledge development in nursing theory and process 9 th ed.

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