unification of the two Yemeni Republics in in relation to Edward Azar‟s theory of Protracted Social Conflict. The study verifies Azar‟s. 2 See Edward E. Azar, The Management of Protracted Social Conflict. Theory Theory of Protracted Social Conflict and the Challenge of Transforming Conflict. The Management of Protracted Social Conflicts: Theory and Cases. Front Cover. Edward E. Azar. Dartmouth Peace and conflict studies: an introduction.

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Protracted social conflict is a theory developed by Edward Azar. The dominant group isolates itself from cnoflict needs of other proyracted, leading to an even bigger separation between groups even within an ethnicity. This invasion caused an exodus of aboutGreek Cypriots to the south. Studying protracted conflict leads one to conclude that peace is development in the broadest sense of the term.

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Protracted social conflict

This first step focuses on the tangible “what of the conflict. The majority of Tamils live in northern and eastern provinces and claim them as their traditional homeland.

Conflict process Sociaal resolution Sectarian violence. After parties have articulated their animosities, the next stage is termed the reflexive—reframing stage where the “why” and “who” of the issue is examined.

The structure of the government needs to be changed so that all citizens are equally cared for and equally represented without bias or corruption.

Rothman developed a unique approach of conflict resolution that is specifically designed to mitigate protracted social conflict. At this point, actors begin to see where their identities converge, and where they diverge. Tamil secessionists saw the establishment of their own separate state as the only way for securing their people.

These cleavages are characterized by continuing hostility with sporadic outbreaks of violence; and caused by the frustration of human needs for security, recognition, and distributive justice. Weaker states, like those often involved in protracted social conflict, tend to be more influenced by outside connections both economically and politically.

With government being “endowed with the authority to govern and use force where necessary to regulate society, to protect citizens, and to provide collective goods,” [8] the government plays a leading role in the satisfaction or lack of satisfaction of minority and identity groups.


Abstract The complexity of the conflict in Rwanda has called for the application of various theories, suggestions and recommendations to the situation by various scholars and researchers in an attempt for conflict resolution.

The relevance of Edward Azar’s theory of protracted social conflict in the context of Rwanda

Contemporary Conflict Resolution, Journal of Peace Research 38 3— Four preconditions are isolated by Azar as the predominant sources of protracted social conflict: Please discuss this issue on the article’s talk page. The fourth and final stage of the ARIA model addresses the “why” and “who” of the conflict, as well as the “how” of cooperation through the tangible “what” of solutions.

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The identity needs of all sides are brought to the forefront with the goal of getting “the disputants to move from positional bargaining to interest-based approaches. The communal groups may experience deep-seated cleavages based upon racial, religious, cultural or ethnic lines. It generally refers to conflicts described by other researchers as protracted or intractablei. That led the two communities to embark on a hostile and protracted process of separation and segregation.

Protracted social conflict – Wikipedia

Their tactics, proscribed as terrorist by many countries, are ruthless, brutal and highly efficient in eliminating their opposition. Although the Cyprus conflict now lasts for a long time, its resolution does not seem to be close. Conflict resolution can truly occur and last if satisfactory amelioration of underdevelopment occurs as well. The pre proposals of different federal or centralist arrangements failed as one or the other side rejected them.

The major conflict began with the independence inwhen Greek community wanted a union enosis with Greece, to which the Turkish community opposed.

The thekry escalated into a war in Julyafter the island-wide pogrom against Tamils.

The resultant disconnection of society and the state can be linked to the colonial legacy, which, “artificially imposed European ideas of territorial statehood onto a multitude of communal groups. Therefore, the theory needs to be accorded due recognition. Such a need for structural change is likely to result in a violent conflict.

Protracted social conflict is a technical term in a theory developed by Edward Azar. Since its independence in there has been protraccted conflict between Sinhalese, which gained control over the Sri Lankan government, and different Tamil separatist movements.


Conflict resolution approaches that focus on resources, or the interests of parties, may be appropriate means of conflict resolution in conflicts where the only issues are those of resource and interests; however, in protracted social conflicts the main issue is identity-based.

This involves the edwarr relations of economic dependency within the international economic system, and the network of political-military linkages constituting regional and global patterns of clientage and cross-border interest. The ARIA model is a comprehensive, yet specific approach to resolving protracted social conflict.

From the research made, it has been found that Rwanda offers thekry evidence to be referred to as a protracted social conflict. For example, many states are dependent on an external supply of armament.

Therefore, this research work is a potential significant contribution to the building of meaningful and sustainable peace in Rwanda. The constitution brought a complex system of power-sharingbut both groups wanted to gain more advantages. When Greek Cypriots wanted to reduce autonomy and representation of Turkish Cypriots, the latter opposed it and intercommunal violence broke out.

The war, that has continued since then, has almost completely disrupted civil administration in the northern province and caused economic devastation of the whole country. Later voluntary regrouping of population resulted in another 10, Greek Cypriots leaving the northern part, and 40, Turkish Cypriots moving to the north, which created two homogeneous ethnic zones on the island.

When a group’s identity is threatened or frustrated, intractable conflict is almost inevitable. This element, which contributes to the initial creation of protracted social conflict, consists of the fact that people involved in protracted social conflicts create their tehory identity groups.

Azar states that protracted social conflicts can be characterized by “incompetent, parochial, fragile, and authoritarian governments that fail to satisfy basic human needs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

In the Ceasefire agreement was signed, and the government agreed to disarm all paramilitary groups in the north and east. This page was last edited on 23 Septemberat