This article throws light upon the five stages in downstream processing. The five stages are: (1) Solid-Liquid Separation (2) Release of Intracellular Products (3). Downstream Processing means recovery of desired products from its crude extract. As we all know that downstream processing is a procedure of separation as well as recovery of yielded products that are manufactured by.

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The vacuum can now be released and the product containing vials can be sealed e. Principles of Downstream Processing. Polyethylene glycol PEG is a high molecular weight non-ionic polymer that can precipitate proteins. Bhavna Anand Mahajan A prolific medical writer and a practicing physiotherapist, Dr. In recent years, micro-filters and ultrafiIters composed of ceramics and steel are available. Reactive extraction procedure is quite useful for the extraction of certain compounds that are highly soluble in water aqueous phase e.

Purificaion refers to the elimination of all contaminating molecules and the presentation of the desired product in a pure and homogeneous form.

Bhavna Anand Mahajan has a M. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In this type of filtration, membranes with specific pore sizes can be used. Falling film evaporators are suitable for removing water from viscous products downstreamint fermentation. These compounds are inflammable; hence require specialised equipment for fire safety. There are 3 downstreamng types of filtrations based on the particle sizes and other characters Table In ion-exchange chromatography, the pH of the medium is very crucial, since the net charge varies with pH.


The compounds are eluted by a mobile phase.

The proteins can be extracted from the aqueous medium by forming reverse micelles. A solution mixture containing molecules of different sizes e. A widely recognized heuristic for categorizing downstream processing operations divides them into four groups which are applied in order to bring a product from its natural state as a component of a tissue, cell or fermentation broth through progressive improvements in purity and concentration.


Views Read Edit View history. Solvent extraction, adsorptionultrafiltration, and precipitation are some of the unit operations involved. Most of the biological products of fermentation are sensitive to heat, and therefore require gentle drying methods.

Ion-exchangers are of two types cation- exchangers which have negatively charged groups like carboxymethyl and sulfonate, downstgeaming anion- exchangers with positively charged groups like diethylaminoethyl DEAE. They can be prepared by mixing a polymer e.

The formulation can be done by concentrating them with removal water. Cell disruption by enzymatic methods has certain advantages i.

Spray drying is used for drying large volumes of liquids. Clarification If product is soluble, it ends up in the clarified permeate and can be sent to next processing step for product capture. It consists of several chambers connected in such a way that the feed flows in a zigzag fashion.

Downstream Process

The force is much higher in the periphery chambers, as a result smallest particles settle down in the outermost chamber. However, this has not been practicable for various reasons. This technique differs from the above procedures, since the materials used for extraction are supercritical fluids SCFs. Certain antibiotics can be extracted by this procedure.


The formulation of low molecular weight products solvents, organic acids can be achieved by concentrating them with removal of most of the water. Additional operations such as grinding, homogenization, or leaching, required to recover products from solid sources such as plant and animal tissues, are usually included in this group. Downstream processing refers to the recovery and purification of biosynthetic products, particularly pharmaceuticals, from natural sources such as animal or plant tissue or fermentation broth, including the recycling of salvageable components and the proper treatment and disposal of waste.

This article is all about the steps of downstream processing. Find out more in our privacy policy in Norwegian only. The different types of centrifuges are depicted in Fig. In addition to these non-specific protein precipitation reactions i. The body of the cell disrupter is kept cool while the operation is on. The precipitation of proteins is dependent on several factors such as protein concentration, pH and temperature.