J. C. CATFORD. LANGUAGE. LANGUAGE. LEARNING. A Linguistic. Theory of Translation Oxford University Press, First published TRANSLATION is an activity of enormous importance in the mod- ern world and it is a subject. A linguistic theory of translation: an essay in applied linguistics. Front Cover. John Cunnison Catford. Oxford University Press, – Language Arts & Disciplines – pages. A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics. Front Cover. John Cunnison Catford. Oxford University Press, – Linguistic research.

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We must, then, take these factors into account, and consider not merely the unconditioned probabilities, but also the conditioned probabilities of the various equivalences.

A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics – J. C. Catford – Google Books

When an utterance begins with an unstressed syllable, we take this to be the exponent of R in an initial foot, the exponent of I in this case being rest. But the parallelism holds good; the distinctive features of phono- logy are phonetically categorized features of phonic substance, trranslation distinctive features of contextual meaning are semetically categorized features of situation substance.

The one thing which does most nearly correspond to transcoding is the universal literate practice of switching from the spoken to the written medium and vice versa. Love Wine In the following table we give the translation-equivalents of French articles found in French texts with English translations. Translation, as a process, is always uni-directional: He was unhesitatingly linguistix with the type required.

A linguistic theory of translation: At one or more levels of language there may be simple replacement, by non- equivalent TL material: But when the whole point of linguistci text is to provide an example of ambiguity, as it is in this paragraph, then translation is lingiistic impossible. In English, however, this item was introduced, and has re- mained, within only the last lexical set, and with the appropriate contextual meaning.


J d a linguistic theory of translation PDF | Damian Grzech –

There is no carry-over into the TL of values set up by formal or contextual relations catfford the SL. These are used only when explicit reference is being made to the description of English Phonology given in 1.

An SL group may have a TL clause as its translation equivalent, and so on. The exponents of elements of sentence-structure are clauses.

In English phonology, for instance, we have classes of the unit phoneme, defined in terms of their operation in the structure of the unit next above, the syllable.

But, in true transliteration: It is fheory, however, to make a translation which is total in the sense given in 2. The following are exam- ples of English tone-groups the pitch-pattern being roughly indicated by lines drawn over the texts.

It is a critical history, treating translations wherever appropriate as literary works in their own right, and reveals the vital part played by translators and translation in shaping the literary culture of the English-speaking world, both for writers and readers.

The foot-division between light and house in 2. The exponents of these are morphemes. The substantial features relevant to a phono- logical unit or item are sounds produced in a human vocal tract. It seems desirable, therefore, to give here the barest outline of the description of English phonology and grammar which we are using.

The sentence is a unit of higher rank than the clause. In B, there is complete formal correspondence of clause- structure no structure-shift: It is solely this relationship to the same sub- stantial features that justifies their use as translation-equivalents since they clearly have quite different meanings from the English, items.


P— one, or more than one, Verbal Translahion if more than one, the first is finite or non- finite, the other s are non-finiteS and C — one, or more than one, Nominal Group, A — one or more than one Adverbial Group.

And each clause consists of several groups — the clause being a unit of higher rank than the group. In this particular example from Colette there is, as Weightman points out, some degree of untranslatability.

A Linguistic Theory Of Translation Oxford Univ. Press ( 1965)

There is thus considerable divergence between formal correspondence and if equi- valence as between English prepositions and Kabardian relational preverbs. These include the following: In the first case we have a phono- logical transcription which may be phonemic, allophonic, prosodic, etc.

This definition is intentionally wide — not vague, though it may appear so at first sight. Nevertheless, commutation is the ultimate test for textual equivalence, and it is useful in cases where equivalence is not of the simple equal-rank and unit-to-unit type illustrated above. Full can be unmarked: The primary classes are: The form can’t may also occur in written texts, but it differs from cannot in that it correlates with situations in which there is a greater degree of familiarity between the writer and his reader s.